“Bildliche und multimodale Metaphern in Werbespots.” Translated from English by Dagmar Schmauks. Zeitschrift für Semiotik 25: 39-60.
Abstract: Studying pictorial metaphor and other forms of non-verbal metaphor is indispensable for the development of a complete and balanced theory of cognitive metaphor, and moreover provides a practical tool for the analysis of certain images. Hitherto, the scant literature has primarily focused on pictorial metaphor in static images. This article focuses on pictorial and multi-modal metaphor in moving images, specifically commercials. Pictorial metaphors in moving images differ from those in static ones in at least the following respects: (1) target and source need not be represented (or suggested) simultaneously, but can occur after one another; (2) in the post-silent film era, a metaphorical term can be cued by the aural track (via music or a sound effect) as well as by visual information. In the latter case the metaphor is better labeled „multimodal“ than „pictorial“; (3) framings and camera movements can create metaphorical similarity in ways not open to static, standalone pictures and photographs. The model developed for static pictorial metaphors developed in Forceville (1996) is shown to be adaptable to those in moving images. The article ends by discussing some questions raised by the analyses, and by suggesting avenues for further research. Keywords: Pictorial metaphor; picture analysis; images & cognition; commercials.