Charles Forceville (1994). “Pictorial metaphor in advertisements.”

“Pictorial metaphor in advertisements.” Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 9: 1-29.

Abstract: Metaphor has been first and foremost studied in its verbal variants. As Lakoff and Johnson (1980) claimed, however, “metaphor is primarily a matter of thought and only derivatively a matter of language”(p. 153). Presuming this idea to be correct, this article makes an exploratory contribution to the study of a different type of metaphor, namely, pictorial metaphor. With reference to Black’s (1962, 1979) interaction theory, several pictorial metaphors in advertisements are considered with the following discussion in mind: What are the two terms of the metaphor and how do we know? Which of the two terms is the (“literal”) A-term and which is the ( “figurative”) B-term? And what can be said about the transfer of properties from B to A? Contextual factors of various kinds help to answer these questions. A tentative subdivision is made into metaphor with one pictorially present term and metaphors with two pictorially present terms.

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